What is Prediabetes

What is Prediabetes: Symptoms, Range & Causes

What is Prediabetes?

Prediabetes is a condition where your blood sugar is higher than normal but isn’t high enough for doctors to diagnose this as Diabetes. It is also called as impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Generally, people with type 2 Diabetes have Prediabetes before getting Diabetes. But this condition does not usually show any symptoms. 

Treating Prediabetes at an early stage can protect major organs like heart, blood vessels, eyes and kidneys from major health problems. Most common symptoms of Prediabetes are increased thirst, frequent urination, blurry vision and a lot more tired than usual. A person is more likely to get Prediabetes if they are older than age 45, is more fat and suffering from cholesterol and consumes a lot of junk food like processed meat, sugary beverages. People who don’t exercise are also more likely to get Prediabetes. People with sleep apnea or other sleep issues, have unusual sugar readings or have had a heart disease are advised to test for Prediabetes. 

Tests to check Prediabetes

To find out if a person is prediabetic or not, the following tests are carried out.

  • Fasting plasma glucose test: You will not eat anything for 8 hours and then a blood sample collector will collect your blood sample to check your sugar level.
  1.   Normal: blood sugar < 100 milligrams per deciliter
  2.   Prediabetes : blood sugar 100-125 milligrams per deciliter
  3.   Diabetes: blood sugar > 126 milligrams per deciliter
  • Oral glucose tolerance test: At first, the fasting plasma glucose test will be taken, after which you’ll be given something sugary to drink. Two hours after that, a blood sample collector will collect some more blood samples for a test.
  1. Normal: blood sugar < 140 milligram per deciliter after second test
  2. Prediabetes: blood sugar 140-199 milligram per deciliter after second test
  3. Diabetes: blood sugar > 200 milligram per deciliter after second test
  • Hemoglobin A1c test: This blood test is generally carried out to find the average blood sugar level in the past 2-3 months. This test is carried out for people with Diabetes and is used to see if their blood sugar level is under control. 
  1.  Normal: <5.6%
  2.  Prediabetes: 5.7-6.4%
  3.  Diabetes: >6.5%

It is advised to take the test twice for a more accurate result.

Causes of Prediabetes

The true cause of Prediabetes is something that is still unknown, but researchers have found out that genetics and family history plays a major role. Not exercising properly and high fat in the abdomen are also few causes of Prediabetes. 

high fat

People with Prediabetes aren’t able to process glucose properly because of which sugar level builds up in the blood instead of providing energy to the body. Maximum glucose comes from the food we consume and as the food gets digested, sugar enters your bloodstream. Moving this sugar from your bloodstream to your body requires a hormone called insulin. This insulin is produced by pancreas and they send insulin whenever we consume food. As insulin spreads through your body, it allows sugar to enter your cells and lowers the sugar level in your blood. As your blood sugar level drops, the pancreas stops the secretion of insulin. For a prediabetic person, this process doesn’t work well. When you have Prediabetes, your pancreas struggles to produce the required amount of insulin or your cells become more resilient to insulin, restricting sugar to enter your cells, so instead of giving energy, sugar starts building up in your bloodstream. 

Prediabetes symptoms 

Other than the common symptoms of Diabetes, there aren’t any symptoms for Prediabetes. People generally find out they have Prediabetes only when they go for a medical screening or they take a medical test. Therefore, it is very important for you to get a regular medical check up especially if you are overweight or have a history of Diabetes in your family. But the most common sign of Prediabetes is being overweight. 

high fat in diabetes

How to prevent Prediabetes?

It is very important for everyone to have a healthy lifestyle. In order to avoid the risk of Prediabetes, one must 

  • Exercise regularly
  • Reduce the consumption of junk food and processed food & start eating healthy foods
  • Lose excess weight and reduce blood cholesterol level
  • Quit smoking 

high fat in diabetes

Leading a healthy and a strict lifestyle is very important and if everyone starts living healthy, it is very easy to prevent the risk of Prediabetes. Not only Prediabetes, but leading a healthy lifestyle can keep us healthy and fit and prevents us from all other health issues.

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